This chapter covers a review of past literatures pertaining to the topic under study. As an opening, it brings in the limelight the backbone of gambling. Several. Literature Review for Problem Gambling Among College Students Georgia State University-Department of Community Psychology Gambling Lab Page 3 of


Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies Online gambling literature review

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Literature Review for Problem Gambling Among College Students Georgia State University-Department of Community Psychology Gambling Lab Page 3 of

Due to the high level of accessibility, immersive interface and ease at which money can be spent, concerns have been expressed that Internet gambling may increase rates of disordered gambling. The current paper aimed to provide an overview of the research to date as well as highlight new and interesting findings relevant to Internet gambling addiction. A comprehensive review of the existing literature was conducted to provide an overview of significant trends and developments in research that relates to disordered Internet gambling.

This paper presents research to inform a greater understanding of adult participation in Internet gambling, features of this interface that may impact problem severity, the relationship between Internet gambling and related online gambling literature review, as well as considering the role of the wider spectrum of gambling behaviour and relevant individual factors that moderate this relationship.

Internet gambling a term largely interchangeable with interactive remote and online gambling refers to the range of wagering and gaming activities offered online gambling literature review Internet-enabled devices, including computers, mobile and smart phones, tablets and digital television. This mode of gambling, online gambling literature review by technological advances, increased Internet availability and ownership of Internet-enabled devices, is not a separate type of gambling activity.

Rather it is a mode of access that is distinct from gambling in person at terrestrial or land-based retail outlets and placing wagers over the telephone. As such, it is a largely automated activity that could be conducted in private, at any time and location, using high-speed Internet connections enabling rapid placement of bets and notification of outcomes.

The ability for large wagers, continuous gambling, rapid feedback and instant, easy online gambling literature review to a vast number of betting options has resulted in concerns that Internet gambling could contribute to excessive gambling [ 12 ]. As a result of the empirical comparisons demonstrating the fundamental parallels between gambling problems and substance use, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 includes a new category of Non-Substance Behavioural Addiction within the substance addictions category [ 3 ].

Mounting evidence of distress and dysfunction related to excessive and problematic Internet use and specifically Internet gaming led the DSM-5 Taskforce to officially call for further research on this behaviour [ 5 ]. Given the similarities in the experience and excessive use of Internet gambling and gaming and the potential for harm online gambling literature review on excessive Internet use, pathological use of Internet gambling also warrants specific consideration [ 4 ].

The current paper aimed to provide an overview of the research to date as well as highlight new and interesting findings relevant to adult Internet gambling addiction. Internet gambling is growing rapidly in terms of popularity, market share and products online gambling literature review. Internationally, an increasing number of jurisdictions are legalizing and regulating Internet gambling [ 10 ].

This follows recognition online gambling literature review the difficulties of enforcing prohibition and the benefits of regulation, including requiring harm minimization measures to enhance consumer protection, and generating taxation revenue [ 1 ].

Internet gambling use is likely to continue to grow as online platforms become increasingly used to engage in entertainment and recreational activities, including through phones and other wireless devices. Research suggests that the most commonly reported motivators and advantages of Internet gambling are the convenience and accessibility of this mode [ 15 — 17 ].

Other commonly stated advantages of Internet gambling include greater value for money, including payout rates and bonuses, the speed and ease of online gambling, greater number online gambling literature review betting products and options and the physical comfort of being able to gamble from home.

Internet gambling represents a fundamental shift in how consumers engage in gambling, and concerns have been expressed by various stakeholders about these changes. Other concerns include that the high accessibility to Internet gambling may increase gambling, particularly among technology-savvy youth, and lead to an increase in the incidence and prevalence of disordered gambling [ 121 ].

Evidence suggests that there is a relationship, albeit complex, between the availability of gambling opportunities and increased levels of related problems [ 25 — 30 ]. Consequently, it has been asserted that the easy access to gambling provided by Internet modes may lead to the development or exacerbation of gambling problems [ 1222431 ].

Internet gambling also has some unique features that may pose additional risks for harm, particularly for vulnerable populations. The use of digital forms of money e. The immersive nature of Internet gambling is also clear through reports that online gamblers, particularly those experiencing problems, are more likely to click here disruption to their sleep and eating patterns online gambling literature review land-based gamblers [ 183637 ].

Data collected by gambling treatment services suggest that Internet gambling currently makes a small, but growing, contribution to gambling problems among those seeking formal help [ 374041 ]. Surveys have found that online problem gamblers are significantly less likely to have sought formal help as compared to land-based problem gamblers [ 204243 ]. Online gambling literature review suggests that problems related to Internet gambling may be underrepresented in treatment-seeking samples and are likely to increase over time as more people participate in this mode and problem severity increases.

For example, in an Australian nationally representative prevalence survey, the overall problem gambling rate among Australian non-Internet gamblers was 0.

In comparison, the rate among Internet gamblers was three times higher at 2. Similarly, a total of However, there is little evidence available that would enable the causation of Internet-related gambling problems to be determined, and most longitudinal studies contain too more info Internet gamblers to provide online gambling literature review analyses. Despite some indications of a positive correlation, online gambling literature review relationship between Internet gambling participation and problems has not been confirmed.

Some studies have found similar rates of gambling problems among Internet and land-based gamblers [ 1541 ]. For example, even though Internet gamblers were more likely to be classified as being at risk or experiencing gambling problems in a nationally representative survey, when other variables were controlled for, Internet gambling participation was not online gambling literature review of problem gambling severity [ 13 ].

This finding was in contrast to earlier analyses [ 31 ] and demonstrates the importance of controlling for confounding factors. Further evidence to question the extent to which Internet gambling increases rates of online gambling literature review gambling can be taken from prevalence studies. Despite rates of Internet gambling increasing in several jurisdictions, little evidence has been found to suggest that the prevalence of problem gambling has increased [ 135354 ].

Online gambling literature review is emerging that Internet gambling is not only predictive of gambling problems but also that when other variables are controlled for, individuals who gamble online may have lower rates of gambling problems. The online gambling literature review between Internet and problem gambling is likely mediated by the use of land-based gambling.

A study examining actual Internet gambling account activity combined with a self-report measure of gambling problems confirmed that gambling involvement, as indicated by number of games played and days bets placed on in past year, is predictive of gambling problems amongst the sample of Internet gamblers analysed [ 58 ].

These results are consistent with a wide body of research which suggests that gambling disorder is related to high levels of involvement in terms of expenditure, time, frequency and online gambling literature review of gambling forms used [ 13365259 — 63 ]. Therefore, research suggests that highly involved gamblers are more likely to engage with Internet modes, including those with existing gambling problems, than less involved gamblers.

However, a study comparing behavioural data from online gambling sites with self-report of gambling problems found that not all highly involved gamblers were at risk for gambling-related problems, and likewise, not all those with low involvement screened negatively for gambling-related problems [ 64 ]. This is an important finding as it demonstrates unsurprisingly that a single gambling index such as a frequency of gambling, or expenditure is not adequate to click the following article gambling problems.

Studies have found that one third to one half of Internet gamblers experiencing gambling problems attribute these to land-based forms of gambling, and over half report that they had existing problems before they ever gambled online [ 1320 ].

This is consistent with one study reporting that problem Internet gamblers prefer land-based over Internet gambling [ 24 ]. Few studies have investigated the types of gambling that are most likely to deposit promotion singapore 2015 associated with problems related to Internet gambling. In an Australian national survey, almost half of all gamblers stated that land-based electronic gaming machines were the primary cause of online gambling literature review problems, including among Internet gamblers [ 13 ].

Internet gamblers are most likely to associate their problems with casino games, sports and race wagering and poker [ 1320 ]. In particular, sports betting appeared to be associated with moderate risk and problem gambling, a finding not replicated among land-based only gamblers [ 1320 ]. However, this finding may be specific to the Australian context as sports wagering is one of the no deposit casinos for australians 2012 legal forms of online gambling.

Conversely, for some Internet problem gamblers, this mode of gambling appears to be the proximal cause of problems, with problem gamblers reporting that their problems started after they first gambled online gambling literature review and around half specifically attributing problems to this mode [ 1320 ].

However, most studies examining the relationship between Internet gambling and problems are cross-sectional, which do not allow for causality to be determined and self-report is subject to bias and reliant on accuracy of reporting. Longitudinal research will be an important addition to this field to address these issues. As Internet gambling increases in popularity and use, it is likely that the next generation of gamblers will use Internet modes earlier in their gambling career, which may increase the proportion of individuals who experience problems that are attributed to this mode.

However, there is a growing recognition that Internet gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and research needs to consider how Internet gambling behaviour may be integrated more broadly with offline gambling [ 4865 ].

Analysis online gambling literature review demographic variables suggests that Internet problem gamblers overall do not represent online gambling literature review distinctly different cohort than gamblers who experience problems related to land-based gambling. Risk online gambling literature review for Internet problem online gambling literature review identified include being male, younger adults, and being from a culturally diverse background learn more here 1320416667 ].

The consistent relationship found between problematic Internet gambling and younger age suggests that this population is particularly vulnerable to harms related to this form, and use of Internet gambling amongst young males is an area that warrants further attention in terms of research as well as harm minimisation. Risk factors identified do not appear to be universal; for example, Gainsbury, Russell, Wood, Hing and Blaszczynski [ 13 ] found problem Internet gamblers more likely to be young, less educated and have greater debts than non-problem Internet gamblers.

A subsequent study found only age differed between Internet and non-Internet problem gamblers when controlling for Internet gambling participation, and there were no significant differences based on education or income [ 20 ]. Other studies have also found that Continue reading gamblers are more likely to have higher educational levels and socio-economic profiles [e.

However, these are associations that do not control for the interaction between variables so it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about problem link compared to non-problem Internet gamblers. It is likely that the profile of those at risk for developing Internet gambling problems will change as this mode of gambling becomes more accepted and online gambling literature review used and further research is conducted.

A study examining irrational and erroneous thinking found that greater levels of erroneous cognitions significantly predicted problem gambling severity when controlling for other variables among Internet online gambling literature review [ 46 ]. As psychological comorbidities and irrational thinking are related to problems amongst land-based gamblers, these results suggest that the online gambling literature review characteristics of Internet problem gamblers are similar to offline gamblers.

There is also evidence that Internet problem gamblers have higher rates of drug and alcohol use than non-problem gamblers. Analysis of surveys completed by online gamblers indicated that compared to non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were more likely to smoke cigarettes, have a disability and drink alcohol while gambling online [ 67 ].

This is consistent with higher rates of mood and substance use disorders and self-harm among highly involved Internet gamblers [ 70 ]. An Australian telephone survey found that illicit drug use was a significant predictor of having greater levels of gambling problems [ 13 ].

These results may indicate that Internet gamblers who are at risk for gambling problems may engage in a range of risk-taking behaviours, for example, due to high levels of impulsivity [ 72 ].

Nonetheless, the relationships between Internet online gambling literature review, gambling problems and other mental health issues are still unclear [ 73 ]. For example, multiple studies in Sweden did not support the assumption that Internet gambling would attract people with low social support, psychological problems, physical problems or health problems such as risky alcohol consumption [ 41 ]. Similarly, offline gamblers were more likely to report health and psychological impacts of problem gambling than Internet gamblers in an Australian study comparing at-risk and problem gamblers [ 20 ].

Furthermore, in a nationally representative Australian telephone survey, Internet gamblers were less likely to drink alcohol and smoke when they were gambling online than when gambling in land-based venues, indicating they were unlikely to be using Internet modes to avoid restrictions on smoking or alcohol [ 13 ].

Overall, existing studies fail to define specific personal or behavioural risk factors to differentiate between Internet and non-Internet problem gamblers. There is some evidence that these do represent at least partially different cohorts; however, the heterogeneity in each group makes specific risk factors difficult to identify. No studies have established the causation between associations found and the direction of any link between problem online gambling. The individual factors related to Internet gambling problems are under-researched and would benefit from longitudinal studies to clarify online gambling literature review mechanism of action of any relationships between variables.

Intense gambling involvement has been verified as a predictor of gambling problems for online and offline gamblers. Other gambling-related behaviours have also been identified as being potential markers of risky Internet gambling. It is possible that unregulated sites attract individuals who are at greater risk for experiencing problems, and use of multiple online accounts and multiple activities is a proxy indicator of gambling involvement, a known predictor of harm.

Analyses of player accounts, including players who exhibit what appears to be risky behaviour, as well as those who have closed accounts due to stated gambling problems, have enabled markers of problem gambling, including early predictors, to be identified. Potential predictors of risky Internet gambling or the emergence of problems include engaging in multiple online gambling activities, high variability in betting, multiple bets per day, many active betting days per month, many bets per online casino oklahoma real money day, high overall stakes and net loss, increasing bet size and losses, chasing losses and intervals of increasing wagering size, followed by online gambling literature review drops [ 585976 — 80 ].

One notable finding from studies of the bwin. This type of betting allows frequent and repeated bets to be placed during a single sporting event, with rapidly determined outcomes, which may be particularly attractive to people who are highly impulsive and at greater risk for disordered gambling [ 81 ]. However, this relationship has not been investigated in independent samples. Analysis of customer communication with online operators identified risk markers that predicted customers closing their accounts due to stated gambling problems.

These included expressed doubts about results of games, requests online gambling literature review account reopening, queries about financial transactions and account administration, the frequency of contacts per month urgency and use of a threatening tonality [ 82 ]. These results were based on a relatively small sample with click limited control group. Single, unmistakable indicators for problems are uncommon, and therefore detection of risk indicators usually relies on algorithms to detect interaction between these.

Further research is still required to untangle whether game-specific characteristics play a causal role in the emergence of gambling problems.

Research is also online gambling literature review on a variety of different player accounts, as the check this out majority of research has been done with a single dataset from one European gambling site, which may not be generalizable to other online gamblers.

Identifying, detecting and acting on early risk indicators may reduce gambling-related harms sustained by Internet gamblers.

However, few online operators have online gambling literature review their data to be used for research purposes or implemented policies and strategies to detect potentially risky players and implement appropriate resources. Such preventative action is generally not required by Internet gambling regulators, meaning that further action is reliant on operator-initiated action. Taken together, the evidence reviewed here suggests that Internet gambling online gambling literature review not cause gambling problems in, and of, itself.


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A review of online gambling literature, / prepared by Amanda V. McCormick and Irwin M. Cohen. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1.
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Get this from a library! A review of online gambling literature, [Amanda V McCormick; Irwin M Cohen; BC Centre for Social Responsibility.].
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Gender and Gaming: A Literature Review Danae Romrell Idaho State University Meadowbrook Rexburg, ID romrdana@belokonev.info Descriptors: Gender, Gaming.
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The first group included 20 patients with online gaming addiction The studies included in this literature review appear to provide compelling evidence for.
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Internet Gambling: A Comprehensive Review and Synthesis of the Literature Robert J. Williams Professor, School of Health Sciences, and Coordinator, Alberta Gaming.
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